Maxillary Cuniculatum Carcinoma: a Case Report and Literature Review

Carcinoma cuniculatum (CC) is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma usually involving the lower extremity. Its occurrence is extremely rare in the oral cavity and has been reported in the literature less than twenty times. First described by Aird et al in 1954 it is a variant of carcinoma showing features of squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma and has been even described as an inverted verrucous carcinoma so differential diagnosis with those is necessary. For this, a close cooperation between clinician, pathologist and radiologist for the correct diagnosis is essential with regard to the correct classification and treatment.

Typical localization of CC is in the lower extremity specially the plantar region. It has been subsequently Identified in noncutaneous regions such as the oral mucosa, oropharynx and larynx. It also has been reported in unusual sites such as the nail apparatus, pilonidal sinus, and in other noncutaneous sites such as the upper aero digestive tract including the nasal cavity and some lesions may occur off the sacral and genital region as well.