Systemic conditions, oral findings and dental management of chronic renal failure patients: general considerations and case report

Chronic renal failure is defined as the progressive and usually irreversible decline of the glomerular filtration rate, leading to an increase of serum creatinine and blood ureic nitrogen levels. The most frequent causes of chronic renal failure are hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic glomerulonephritis, uropathy and autoimmune diseases. It is a relatively common condition and diabetic nephropathy is the most frequent cause of the end-stage of renal disease (ESRD), being found in 14% of renal failure patients in England and 34% of the patients in the USA

Because of its usually irreversible and progressive nature, the evolution to the ESRD occurs where glomerular filtration rate is around 5-10% and there is a high level of uremia. These are signals and symptoms derived from physiological and biochemical abnormalities of serious renal failure.