PDF: Efficacy of Revascularization to Induce Apexification/Apexogensis in Infected, Nonvital, Immature Teeth: A Pilot Clinical Study

Endodontic treatment options for immature, nonvital teeth conventionally include surgical endodontics, apexification with calcium hydroxide, or single visit mineral trioxide aggregate plug. 


A new treatment option of revascularization has recently been introduced. It involves disinfecting the root canal system, providing a matrix of blood clot into which cells could grow, and sealing of the coronal access.

► See also: PDF: Endodontic Treatment of dental formation anomalies

The present pilot clinical study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of revascularization in 14 cases of infected, immature teeth. Endodontic treatment was initiated, and after infection control, revascularization was performed.
The access cavity was sealed with glass ionomer cement. The cases were followed up at regular intervals of 3 months; the range in follow-up was 0.5–3.5 years. The outcomes were as follows. Radiographic resolution of periradicular radiolucencies was judged to be good to excellent in 93% (13 of 14) of the cases. In the majority of cases, a narrowing of the wide apical opening was evident.

In 3 cases, thickening of apical dentinal walls and increased root length were observed. The striking finding was complete resolution of clinical signs and symptoms and appreciable healing of periapical lesions in 78% (11 of 14) of cases. Thickening of lateral dentinal walls was evident in 57% (8/14) of cases, and increased root length was observed in 71% (10/14) of cases. None of the cases presented with pain, reinfection, or radiographic enlargement of preexisting apical pathology. This pilot study documented a favorable outcome of revascularization procedures conducted in immature nonvital, infected permanent teeth. (J Endod 2008;34:919 –925)

Naseem Shah, MDS, Ajay Logani, MDS, Uday Bhaskar, MDS, and Vivek Aggarwal, MDS