The functional demand imposed on bone promotes changes in the spatial properties of osteocytes as well as in their extensions uniformly distributed throughout the mineralized surface.
Once spatial deformation is established, osteocytes create the need for structural adaptations that result in bone formation and resorption that happen to meet the functional demands.
The endosteum and the periosteum are the effectors responsible for stimulating adaptive osteocytes in the inner and outer surfaces.Changes in shape, volume and position of the jaws as a result of skeletal correction of the maxilla and mandible require anchorage to allow bone remodeling to redefine morphology, esthetics and function as a result of spatial deformation conducted by orthodontic appliances. Examining the degree of changes in shape, volume and structural relationship of areas where mini-implants and miniplates are placed allows us to classify mini-implants as devices of subabsolute anchorage and miniplates as devices of absolute anchorage.
The protein cytoskeleton of cells is responsible for maintaining normal tridimensional cell shape, as well as cell movement and migration. Cytoskeletal proteins are classified according to their molecular weight and spatial structure as: microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments.
In all body systems, the balance provided by the intrinsic annulation of all forces results in a force equals to zero known as tensegrity. All cells tend to be similar in shape as a result of balance established between inner and outer forces that, in turn, result from a mutual annulation between them. This state of balance or stability is also known as cellular tensegrity.
Whenever tensegrity is lost by compression of the cytoskeleton, the latter tends to go back to its natural state similarly to other natural systems, but by stimulating a set of events so as to meet that purpose. Chemical mediators are released to induce cell and tissue phenomena, which is part of the process established by the cells with a view to restoring tensegrity. Tensegrity is responsible for determining stability of shape and standard morphology of an object or system, particularly cells.