PDF: ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY of Toothpastes Containing Natural Extracts, Chlorhexidine or Triclosan

The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of toothpastes containing natural extracts, chlorhexidine or triclosan. 

The effectiveness of toothpastes containing natural extracts (Parodontax(r)), 0.12% chlorhexidine (Cariax(r)), 0.3% triclosan (Sanogil(r)) or fluoride (Sorriso(r), control) was evaluated against yeasts, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using the disk diffusion method. Water was used as a control. Disks impregnated with the toothpastes were placed in Petri dishes containing culture media inoculated with 23 indicative microorganisms by the pour plate method.

After incubation, the inhibition growth halos were measured and statistical analyses (α=0.05) were performed. The results indicated that all formulations, except for conventional toothpaste (Sorriso(r)), showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts. The toothpaste containing natural extracts (Parodontax(r)) was the only product able to inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The toothpastes containing chlorhexidine, triclosan or natural extracts presented antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts.

Dental biofilm formation is a natural process that must be controlled by regular brushing to prevent the development of dental caries and periodontal disease. Standard toothpaste formulas generally contain a combination of fluoride and detergents, enhancing the efficacy of biofilm control. The addition of different antimicrobial agents has been suggested as a potential method for reduction, control and prevention of the accumulation of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic microorganisms. However, the antimicrobial ability of such agents in combination with fluoride-containing toothpastes has not yet been effectively tested or proven.

Triclosan is a low-toxicity, non-ionic, chlorinated bisphenol that is compatible with toothpaste components, such as fluoride and surfactants, and it promotes inhibition of cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase pathways and exhibits anti-inflammatory effects. This agent, has been incorporated into toothpastes until the present, resulting in moderate effects on both dental biofilm formation and marginal inflammation or gingivitis. However, to date there are no in vitro or in vivo studies evaluating the antimicrobial effect of a 0.3% triclosan paste-based, called Sanogyl(r), which is available in several countries.

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