PDF: Alveolar Ridge Preservation after dental extraction and before implant placement: a literature review

Dental implants have been successfully used in the re-habilitation of partially and completely edentulous patients. 

However, the outcome of treatment with implants is no longer measured exclusively in terms of implant survival, but also by the long-term esthetic and functional success of the prosthesis.

The successful esthetic and functional restoration of an implant depends on its optimal placement, which is influenced by its height and buccolingual position as well as by the alveolar ridge dimensions.

The loss of alveolar bone volume can occur before dental extraction due to periodontal disease, periapical pathology and trauma to the teeth and bone. Additionally, the traumatic removal of teeth can cause bone loss and must therefore be prevented.

Finally, the alveolar bone suffers atrophy after tooth extraction, which has been well documented.

Thus, an understanding of the healing process of postextraction sites, including contour alterations caused by bone resorption and remodelling, is essential for obtaining functional and esthetically satisfactory prosthetic reconstructions.

This literature review aimed to discuss the histological and clinical aspects of alveolar healing and the ARP procedure after tooth extraction and verify whether they allow dental implant placement (with or without further augmentation).