PDF: Intraosseous Myofibroma of the Mandible: A Case Report

The myofibroma is defined as a benign neoplasm formed by myoid contractile cells localized around the wall of thin blood vessels.

It is a tumor that presents itself mostly in infancy although it may occur at any age and it is most common in head and neck; it is uncommon to be localized in the oral cavity and even less common if it is intraosseous.

It may also be associated to miofibromatosis or present itself as a solitary lesion. The differential diagnosis depends on the localization and the radiographic characteristics; it would be very difficult to include, at first hand, myofibroma as an intraosseous lesion.

Histopathologically, a neoplasm with a biphasic pattern formed by spindle cells in fascicles and bundles, spindle nucleus with eosinophilic cytoplasm inside a hyalinized stroma was found.

In lesions of neoplasms of spindle cells histological studies should be supported by an immunohistochemical panel and show positive results to antibodies Actin, smooth muscle Actin and Vimentin.

The etiology of myofibroma is uncertain; it may be of autosomal dominant or recessive type; nevertheless, the family incidence is low. It is suggested that there might be other factors involved.