PDF: Effects of Nonsurgical Periodontal Treatment on the Alveolar Bone Density

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of nonsurgical periodontal treatment on alveolar bone density (ABD) and bone height (BH) using direct digital radiography.

Nineteen patients (mean age: 36±7.3 years) with generalized chronic periodontitis were examined at baseline, 90 (90AT) and 180 (180AT) days after nonsurgical periodontal therapy.

Radiographs were taken from two sites with specific characteristics: 39 sites with probing pocket depth (PPD)≤3 mm and clinical attachment level (CAL)≤1 mm (shallow sites); and 62 sites with PPD≥5 mm and CAL≥3 mm (deep sites).

The ABD was assessed considering the bone regions of interest at the alveolar bone crest (ROI I) and at the medullar bone (ROI II). The BH was assessed considering the distance from the alveolar bone crest to the cementoenamel junction. 

Mann-Whitney test was used for the overall demographic data, Wilcoxon test was used to compare the baseline, 90AT and 180AT data as well as to compare the groups and subgroups within the same evaluation period. The significance level was set at 5%.

The deep sites showed a significant increase of ABD in ROI I at 90AT (p<0.007) and at 180AT (p<0.005). ABD decrease was seen in ROI II at 180AT (p<0.04) while BH reduced only in shallow sites at 90AT. 

In conclusion, an increase in ABD was observed in deep sites of patients with generalized chronic periodontitis. However, no significant change in alveolar BH was observed in these sites.