PDF: Diagnosis and Management of Impacted Maxillary Canines

The incidence of maxillary canine impaction was reported as second to the third molar. The incidence was reported varies, from 0.92% to 2.2%, higher in some races.

Dachi and Howell reported an incidence of 0.92%, while Thilander and Myrberg reported 2.2% in 7-13 years of age.2,3 Ericson and Kurol also reported an incidence of 1.7%, more common in women (1.17%) than in men (0.51%) as a ratio about 2:1.

Bilateral impactions present in about 8% of people with maxillary impacted canines. Palatally impacted canine occurs more than labially impacted canine by the ratio of 2:1 to 3:1. Jacoby believed that most labial impactions could erupt to a relatively labial and superior position. 

He declared that 85% of palatally impacted canines have enough space for eruption, whereas only 17% of labially impacted canines have enough space. 

There were 83% of labially impacted canines cases who had arch length deficiency, a primary etiologic factor for labially impacted canines.

However, palatally impacted canines seldom erupt without surgical or orthodontic intervention due to the thick cortical bone and dense palatal mucosa. 

Moreover, palatally impacted canines are often in a horizontal or oblique direction. The prevalence of impacted maxillary canines in Chinese people was different from Caucasians. 

The ratio of labially and palatally impacted canines is 2.1: 1,and the ratio of male to female having maxillary canine impactions is 1.8:1.

Maxillary canines play an important role in facial esthetics, since the canine eminence can support the alar and the upper lip. 

Impacted maxillary canines is a common problem which requires multidisciplinary diagnosis and treatment in dental clinic. 

The aim of this review is to integrate the studies that include clinical diagnosis and guidelines for management of canine impaction. 

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