PDF: Effects of diabetes on the osseointegration of dental implants

Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by an increase in plasma glucose levels. This hyperglycaemia is the result of a defect in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.

It is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in modern society and has become an alarming public health problem.

In the last decade, diabetes affected approximately 140 million individuals and it is expected to affect over 220 million by 2010 and more than 300 in 2025. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Spain is estimated at 6.2% for the 30 65 age group and 10% for 30 to 89-year-olds, 90% of whom will be Type 2 diabetics.

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Chronically high levels of plasma glycaemia lead to the onset of chronic vascular complications of this condition, a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. The treatment of diabetes aims at achieving optimal metabolic control so as to avoid or delay these complications. Over the last few years, special importance has been given to the relationship between diabetes and oral pathologies.

Periodontal disease, frequently co-existing with diabetes, is considered to be a further complication of this disease. It affects both patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and it increases the risk of severe periodontitis by a factor of 3 to 4 times.

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