PDF: Effects of diabetes on the osseointegration of dental implants

The increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus has become a public health problem. Hyperglycaemia entails a rise in the morbidity and mortality of these patients.

Although a direct relationship with periodontal disease has already been shown, little is known about the results of dental implants in diabetics.

The present paper reviews the bibliography linking the effect of diabetes on the osseointegration of implants and the healing of soft tissue. 

In experimental models of diabetes, a reduced level of bone-implant contact has been shown, and this can be reversed by means of treatment with insulin. 

Compared with the general population, a higher failure rate is seen in diabetic patients. Most of these occur during the first year of functional loading, seemingly pointing to the microvascular complications of this condition as a possible causal factor. 

These complications also compromise the healing of soft tissues. It is necessary to take certain special considerations into account for the placement of implants in diabetic patient. 

A good control of plasma glycaemia, together with other measures, has been shown to improve the percentages of implant survival in these patients.