PDF: Dental trauma clinically mimicking single central incisor syndrome

The presence of a solitary incisor positioned on the midline may be related to premature tooth loss due to trauma, hypodontia or, more rarely, solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome.

SMMCI syndrome is rare, affecting 1:50,000 live births, and is more common among females.

Although its etiology remains uncertain, SMMCI syndrome may be related to chromosomal alterations, mutations in the SHH gene or holoprosencephaly, a severe condition that affects the midline development of the brain and face.

Orthodontists often diagnose cases of SMMCI syndrome that have no obvious cause. Referral for the appropriate genetic testing and counseling should be considered for such patients.

Moreover, because dental trauma may clinically mimic SMMCI syndrome, a particularly thorough documentation of the patient's history is necessary.

Although there has been a report that traumatism may be confused with SMMCI syndrome, no clinical cases characterized by such a misunderstanding have been published.

This paper presents a clinical case in which the patient was missing a median central incisor because of trauma but was sent for orthodontic treatment due to suspicions of SMMCI syndrome.