PDF: Immunohistochemical evaluation of the inflammatory response in periodontal disease

Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory infectious condition that affects the surrounding and/or supporting tissues of the teeth and, in which, like in other infections, bacteria-host interactions determine the nature of the resulting disease.

The immune response of the host organism to dental biofilm microorganisms can be either protective, destructive or both, contributing to the wide variety of tissue alterations observed in periodontal disease.

Numerous studies have demonstrated variations in the number and/or density of lymphocyte subpopulations as well as in the number of plasma cells during different stages of periodontal disease.

While T lymphocytes represent the predominant inflammatory cell type in early and stable periodontal lesions, B lymphocytes and plasma cells predominate in advanced and progressive lesions, such as chronic periodontitis. 

In addition to lymphocytes, macrophages represent another important cell type involved in host defense against bacterial aggression, accounting for about 5-30% of the inflammatory infiltrate found in periodontal lesions.

The purpose of this study was to determine the immunohistochemical phenotype of cells that participate in the immune response in chronic gingivitis (CG) and chronic periodontitis (CP) and the profile of the cell population involved in this response in order to obtain data that might contribute to the assessment and understanding of the multiple and complex biological steps of the etiopathogenis of periodontal disease.