PDF: Relationship between TemporoMandibular Disorders and Orthodontic Treatment: a literature review

The problems associated with the diagnosis and management of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) have aroused interest to the orthodontist. 

The attention to signs and symptoms associated with TMD have modified the clinical management before and during orthodontic treatment.

According to the American Academy of Orofacial Pain, the term temporomandibular disorder refers to a set of clinical problems that involve the masticatory musculature, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and associated structures, or both, being identified as the leading cause of non-dental pain in the orofacial region and is considered a subclass of musculoskeletal disorders.

The signs and symptoms that indicate any abnormality of the TMJ are: Alteration of the mandibular movement, limitation of mouth opening, joint pain with mandibular function, constraint function, joint noises, asymptomatic radiographic changes of the TMJ and jaw locking with open mouth and closed mouth.

The most common symptom associated with TMD is pain, usually located in the masticatory muscles, preauricular area and / or temporomandibular joint (TMJ).

The pain is often aggravated by chewing or other functional activities. Limitation of mouth opening and movement, and the presence of joint noises are other common complaints in patients with TMD.

The objective of this study was to review studies from the last 15 years, searching for clinical studies that report the relationship between TMD and orthodontic treatment and/or malocclusion, with the objective of determining if: 

1. Orthodontic treatment would increase the incidence of signs and symptoms of TMD.

2. Orthodontic treatment would be an option for treating or preventing TMD symptoms and signs.