PDF: Oral management of adult patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are the current treatments for patients with hematological diseases; they result in myelosuppression, and increase the susceptibility of patients to severe infections. 

The oral cavity is a potential site of complications in HSCT patients, because it is the entrance for agents that can cause systemic infections; it is one of the most frequent locations for side effects deriving from conditioning therapy.

The importance of dental pre-chemotherapy and transplant prescription is often stressed, since both therapies depress the immune system and platelets, making each intervention at this stage a high risk. 

The aim of this article is to review the potential complications of HSCT, and to extrapolate from the scientific literature the treatments and timeframes in which dental therapies can be performed, avoiding important risks for patients.

Patients undergoing immunosuppressive and conditioning therapy have an increased risk of developing oral complications: opportunistic infections, gingivitis, mucositis, and ulcerations of the oral mucosa.

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