The risk factors for maxillary fungal ball are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether endodontic treatment of maxillary teeth is a risk factor for fungal ball development in the maxillary sinus, and to identify other possible risk factors.
A fungal ball of the maxillary sinus is the most common fungal disease that usually develops unilaterally in the maxillary sinus without bony invasion. It is most frequently found in older individuals, especially in their sixties, and has a female preponderance.
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A maxillary fungal ball is frequently diagnosed in patients with prolonged history of symptoms of recurrent maxillary sinusitis, or is incidentally diagnosed on imaging studies, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
They can also be found during endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) in patients diagnosed with chronic paranasal rhinosinusitis, even without typical CT findings.
The treatment of choice for a fungal ball is complete surgical removal by ESS. After the surgery, the recurrence rate is very low.
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