Traumatic injuries to immature permanent teeth represent a serious endodontic challenge. If the pulp becomes necrotic, pulpectomy and root canal therapy will be the treatment of choice.
If the root apex is not completely formed, obturation becomes an extremely difficult procedure, especially when thermoplasticized gutta-percha is used.
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Apexification with calcium hydroxide has become the standard treatment choice to provide an apical stop and avoid possible overfilling.
The main purpose of apexification is to induce the formation of a mineralized barrier at the apex so that the obturation materials do not get thrown into the periapical tissues. However, it is a very time-consuming procedure.
Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) has been indicated as a suitable material for apexification of immature roots based on its ability of inducing hard tissue formation.