PDF: Endodontic Treatment of dental formation anomalies

Tooth formation anomalies are rare disturbances, which are capable of originating dental elements with very unusual anatomy. These anatomic changes can occur in the tooth crown, root and root canal.

Gemination and fusion are developmental anomalies of hard tissues with close similarity inherited by different aetiology. In cases of fusion, the crowns are united by enamel and/or dentin, but there are two roots or two root canals in a single root. 

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It has been suggested that there may be fusion between the teeth of the normal series or between one of the normal series and a supernumerary tooth. Dental fusion is characterized by the union of two dental germs during the developmental stage, in consequence of aberration of both the ectoderm and mesoderm. 

It is mainly observed in deciduous dentition, which may be complete or incomplete, depending on the stage of development in which the union occurred.

The incidence is greater in incisors and canines with apparent equal distribution between the two jaws, and cases involving molar teeth are rare. 

It is more common in the anterior region, approximately 0.1% occurs in permanent and 0.5% in primary dentition, with an equal distribution in females and males, among Caucasians.

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