PDF: Pharmacological and Toxicological Properties of Eugenol

Eugenol is a volatile phenolic constituent of clove essential oil obtained from Eugenia caryophyllata buds and leaves.

It is a functional ingredient of numerous products which have been used in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industry in restricted concentrations.

Its derivatives have been used in medicine as a local antiseptic and anesthetic. The wide range of eugenol activities includes antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant. 

Although eugenol is considered safe as a product, due to the vast range of different applications and extensive use, there has been a great concern about its toxicity in recent years. However, studies about cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of eugenol are very limited and controversial.

The pharmacological and toxicological properties of eugenol will be discussed in this review.

Investigations of anti-inflammatory effects of eugenol, have suggested that this compound is able to suppress the expressions of cyclooxygenase II enzyme. 

Eugenol dimers can inhibit the expression of cytokines in macrophages, which are stimulated by polysaccharides.

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