PDF: Laser Pips - Current Trends in Endodontic Irrigation - Journal of MAR Dental Sciences

A technique for irrigation of the root canals that makes use of lasers. Sodium hypochlorite absorbs the laser, causing it to vaporise and produce vapour bubbles.

As these bubbles grow and burst, they cause additional cavitational effects. The lasers employed can include diode lasers, Er: YAG, and Nd: YAG, which exhibit photochemical effects due to their high peak power and brief pulse duration. 

The PIPS tip is 9 mm long, 600 microns in diameter, and 3 mm shorter at the head for lateral wave emission. 

The canal orifice is where the PIPS tip is stored.25 According to Devito et al., PIPS is superior to traditional techniques. Noiri et al. and Llyod also demonstrated PIPS's ability to remove organic debris at a greater level but that the biofilm did not completely disappear. 

Photo Activated Disinfection: Reactive oxygen species are released when a photosensitizer (non-toxic dye) is inserted into the dental canal and is activated by low-intensity light. 

The dye adheres to the cell, releasing nascent oxygen and damaging the cell membrane when exposed to a particular light source. 

According to Komerik et al., the dye is believed to have reduced affinity for human cells. Besides being efficient against bacteria, photo activated disinfection (PAD) is also effective against fungus, viruses, and other organisms.

Toluidine blue is injected into the canal and let to sit for 60 seconds while being exposed to light for 30 seconds. 

Bunsor and Schlafer discovered that it effectively gets rid of micro-organism. It should be seen as an addition to irrigation rather than a replacement. 

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